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THE STRUGGLE OF 
THE IRISH PEOPLE 



ADDRESS TO THE 
CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES 



Adopted at the January Session 
OF Dail Eireann, 1921 




2|~ZU^?5" 



PRESENTED BY MR. BORAH 

May 2, 1921. — Referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations 
and ordered to be printed 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1921 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 



^ 






THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 



To the elected Representatives of the people of the United States oj 
America: 

We, the elected representatives of Ireland, recognizing in you the 
elected Representatives in Congress of the people of the United States 
of America, our brethren in the common effort to hasten the day 
when the nations may dwell together in justice and in harmony, have 
the honor to greet and to address you. 

1. We feel certain that the struggle of our people — the people of 
Ireland — against the aggression of England is not passing unob- 
served by you. We covet your esteem as we would value your 
sympathy and support and fearful least you be misled by the wide- 
spread, persistent, and insidious propaganda of falsehood through 
which England seeks to create prejudice against us — distorting the 
character of the contest, we hasten to lay before you facts, so that 
correctly informed you may be able to judge justly. 

2. The nation which we represent enjoyed for over a thousand 
years the life of an independent sovereign State among the States of 
Europe. Then a neighboring nation — England — which had received 
the benefits of civilization and education first from our hands, lost to 
gratitude and honor and burning with lust for our possessions, burst 
in upon us as a conscienceless invader, and through the course of 
many generations strove to subvert our polity, annihilate our language 
and our culture, suppress our industry, ruin our agriculture, steal 
our trade and our commerce, deprive us of the advantages of our 
geographical position, cut us off from our ancient intercourse with 
other peoples, rob our revenues, and erase our name from the roll of 
nations. 

3. Failing to achieve these ends after centuries of criminal effort, 
this nation entered into solemn treaties acknowledging our national 
independence and contracting to respect it for all time, but this meant 
merely until our national defenses were dismantled. Then treaties 
and contracts were treated as scraps of paper and the compact 
treacherously and bloodily violated. 

4. All the resources of a powerful and ruthless tyranny have been 
employed since in a desperate attempt to utterly destroy us as a 
nation. In the course of little over a century we have been robbed 
of wealth amounting to an empire's ransom, whilst within living mem- 
ory a population of eight and a half millions which, with the normal 
rate of increase, would have given us to-day a population of some 
seventeen millions, has been reduced by enemy acts to four millions — 
a crime unique among civilized nations. Our island is surpassingly 
fertile, generously endowed by nature with every advantage and 
facility for industry, for trade, and for commerce, capable of support- 
ing in happiness and prosperity twenty millions of souls, yet only 
last year it was publicly declared by the official head of the usurping • 

3 



4 THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 

English Government that it was the considered pohcy of that Govern- 
ment to banish from our country the young and strong — the flower 
of the four millions that yet remain. 

5. The Irish people have consistently resisted this infamous 
tyranny to the utmost of their power. Almost every generation 
has witnessed at least one armed uprising, and when the people 
were too weak to resist in arms they never ceased to make clear 
their hatred of the rule of the foreigner. Their oppressor's declara- 
tions that the national sentiment of Ireland is guilty of "disloyalty" 
to English rule has been a constant acknowledgment of this attitude. 
The attitude and the desire of the present generation has been made 
manifest beyond question. 

6. On December 14, 1918, mindful of the principles professed by 
the Government of England during the Great War and seeing in the 
application of these principles a ready and a just means of arriving 
at a peaceful and final settlement of their own centuried struggle, the 
Irish people declared by an overwhelming majority at the polls for 
an independent Irish republic. 

7. Acting on the mandate thus expressly given by this national 
plebiscite, carried out under the forms and laws prescribed by Eng- 
land herself, the people's elected representatives assembled on Janu- 
ary 21, 1919, formally proclaimed the nation's independence and 
declared the republic of Ireland duly established. 

8. This legitimate application of the principle of national self- 
determiination, this peaceful and orderly exercise of their moral and 
democratic right by the Irish people, was met by the British Govern- 
ment with an immediate and murderous exercise of brutal force. 
Troops and engines of destruction that for four years had been en- 
gaged on the Continent of Europe in the cause of the rights of small 
nations, it was said, and the fundamental principles of democracy, 
were rushed to Ireland and used to trample on those very rights and 
to strangle that very principle in the name of which they had been 
enrolled and employed. 

9. The reign of intensified military terrorism that was thus insti- 
tuted, although rigorously persisted in, did not intimidate the voters 
at the ensuing municipal and rural elections for local governing 
bodies. The homes of the people were raided systematically by day 
and by night, individual electors were murdered by bayonet and 
bullet, men were taken by the thousand and dragged off to English 
jails, the fears of the women and children were mercilessly play^ed 
upon, but the terror failed. The year, instead of weakening, in- 
creased the strength of the Irish people's determination, and the 
republican representation showed an increase of 15 p6r cent on the 
previous elections though the system of ''proportional representa- 
tion" had been applied with the express design of reducing it. 

10. To this further peaceful and constitutional action on our part, 
the foreign usurping Government, replied with a still fiercer and more 
vicious brutality. 

11. The national, political, cultural, and industrial associations of 
the people were proscribed, and membership deemed a crime. The 
right of public assembly was abolished and the press gagged. The 
elected representatives of the nation were declared a criminal body. 
All of their number with two exceptions were seized from time to 
time and imprisoned in English jails where two have already met 
their deaths. 



THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 5 

12. For over two years the people of Ireland bore patiently these 
ever-increasing burdens and persecutions without committing a single 
act of violence, either in self-defense or in reprisal. In that period, 
thousands were torn from their homes and cast into prison, many 
died as a result of prison treatment, and seven unarmed citizens were 
willfully murdered by the armed agents of the English Government, 
which openly incited the murders and encouraged the murderers with 
rewards and promotion. 

13. But this patience of the people at last became exhausted. 
Abandoned, as it seemed, by the world, they turned to defend them- 
selves as best they could. The British Government then put aside 
every restraint of civilization and deliberately resolved to proceed 
without regard for life or property. So vile was the policy projected 
that their regular troops could not be relied upon to carry it out. 
The ex-convict from the jails, however, and the degenerate back from 
the trenches, in whose breast the savagery of the late war had ex- 
tinguished the last sparks of humanity, could be depended upon to 
have few qualms in dealing with their victims, and to cause little 
embarrassment to those in high authority amongst their employers 
by any nice regard for nominal discipline. A special force of these 
fiends was accordingly embodied. Allured by the prospect of an easy 
prey and unlimited loot, they were gathered together from every 
corner of Britain, and operating with the whole British Army in their 
rear as a cover and a protection, they were let loose upon an un- 
armed and defenseless populace. 

14. An orgy of murder and robbery began. Neither age nor sex nor 
profession was respected. Old men of 80 and little children of 8, 
sick and crippled boys, mothers and wives, even anointed ministers 
of God, were indiscriminately murdered — the breadwinner before the 
eyes of his family and the mother with the child at her breast at the 
cottage door. Houses, offices, workshops, factories and creameries 
were plundered and destroyed. Towns and villages were sacked and 
burned down. The home of the farmer and the home of the artisan, 
the shop, the store, the office were looted and given to the flames. 

15. Whole districts were devastated and the produce destroyed in 
the hope of famishing the population. Individual citizens were held 
up at the point of the revolver or bayonet and robbed on the public 
streets, and wlule these outrages were being perpetrated every act of 
self-defense on the part of tfie victims was advertised by English 
propagandists as a crime, and the murderers and robbers proclaimed 
champions of law and order. 

16. At the present moment these abominations continue unabated. 
The English Government's jails are being filled with our countrymen, 
some of whom have been murdered therein, and others put to the 
torture. New capital offenses are being created. The simple pos- 
session of firearms is a charge on which several Irishmen have been 
executed. Prominent citizens are carried as hostages by English 
troops in their military expeditions against our people, and their fives 
forfeit if the unit with which they are traveling be molested. The 
elected representatives of the nation, the mayors and the presidents of 
our municipal and urban councils, the chairmen of our county and 
rural councils — all the chief officers on whom devolve the direction of 
national and local administration are made objects of special attack, 
the uniform purpose being to prevent constructive legislation, and 



6 THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 

to bring our domestic public affairs into chaos. Such, for example, 
was the purpose that lately prompted the murder of one lord mayor 
of Cork, the imprisoimient till death of another lord mayor of Cork, 
and the imprisonment until his health was permanently impaired of 
the lord mayor of Dublin. 

17. This demoniacal war upon our community is being waged with 
no other provocation than our insistence on our national right, and 
our faithful adherence to a principle which even the demon's masters 
themselves have pretended to serve. 

18. The Irish people claim no more than their right as a nation 
to determine freely for themselves how they shall be governed. We, 
their official spokesmen — their elected parliament and government 
call mankind to witness that our people have ever been ready to 
welcome peace with England on that just basis. 

19. On no other basis is peace possible. We shall not surrender 
our national right — nor will force compel us. 

Our cause is the common cause of humankind. To that cause we 
have pledged ourselves and our people to remain faithful unto death. 

You, the representatives of a sister nation, can not, we feel, be 
insensible to the issue. 

Adopted at the January session of Dail Eireann, 1921. 
(Signed :) 

Eamon de Valera, president, deputy for East Clare and 
East Mayo; Arthur Griffith, deputy for East Cavan 
and Northwest Tyrone; James Lennon, deputy for 
Carlow County; PaiJ Galligan, deputy for West 
Cavan; Brian O'Higgins, deputy for West Clare; 
J. J. Walsh, deputy for Cork City; Liam de Roiste, 
deputy for Cork City; P. O'Keeffe, deputy for North 
Cork; T. Hunter, deputy for North East Cork; 
David Kent, deputy for East Cork; John Hayes, 
deputy for West Cork; Michael Collins, deputy for 
South Cork; Joseph O'Doherty, deputy for North 
Donegal; Joseph Sweeney, deputy for West Donegal; 
P. J. Ward, deputy for South Donegal; li. J. Mul- 
cahy, deputy for Clontarf, Dublin City; John T 
O'Kelly, deputy for College Green, Dublin City 
Philip Shanahan, deputy for Harbour, Dublin City 
Joseph McGrath, deputy for St. James, Dublin City 
Michael Staines, deputy for St. Michans, Dublin City; 
Thomas Kelly, deputy for St. Stephens Green, 
Dublin City; Constance de Markieviz, deputy for St. 
Patricks, Dublin City; Eoin MacNeill, deputy for 
National University and Derry City; Frank Lawless, 
deput}^ for North County Dublin; George Gavan 
Duffy, deputy for South County Dublin; Desmond 
Fitzgerald, deputy for Pembroke, County Dublin; 
John O'Mahony, deputy for South Fermanagh; 
Padruig O'Maille, deputy for Connemara, County 
Galway; Brian Cusack, deput}^ for North Galway; 
Liam Mellowes, deputy for East Galway and North 
Meath; Francis Fahy, deputy for South Galway; 
J. Crowley, deputy for North" Kerry; Austin Stack, 
deputy for West Kerry; Fionan Lynch, deputy for 



THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 1 

South Kerry; Piaras Beaslai, deputy for East Kerry; 
Daniel Bucklev, deputy for North Kildare; Art 
O'Connor, deputy for South Kildare; W. T. Cosgrave, 
deputy for North Kilkenny; James O'Mara, deputy 
for South Kilkenny; Patrick McCartan, deputy for 
Offaly (Kings County) ; James N. Dolan, deputy for 
Leitrim County; M. P. Colivet, deputy for Limerick 
City; Cornelius Collins, deputy for West Limerick; 
Richard Hayes, deputy for East Limerick; Joseph 
McGuinness, deputy for Longford County; J. J. 
O'Kelly, deputy for Louth County; J. Crowley, 
deputy for North Mayo; Joseph McBride, deputy 
for West Mayo; William Sears, deputy for South 
Mayo; E. J. Duggan, deputy for South Meath; 
Ernest Blythe, deputy for North Monaghan; John 
MacEntee,^ deputy for South Monaghan; Kevin 
O'Higgins, deputy for Leix (Queens County) ; George 
Noble Count Plunkett, deputy for North Roscom- 
mon; Henry Boland, deputy for South Roscommon; 
J. J. Clancy, deputy for North Sligo; Alex McCabe, 
deputy for South Sligo; Joseph McDonagh, deputy 
for North Tipperary; James A, Burke, deputy for 
Middle Tipperary; P. J. Moloney, deputy for South 
Tipperary; Cathal Brugha, deputy for Waterford 
County; Laurence Ginnell, deputy for Westmeath 
County; James Ryan, deputy for South Wexford; 
Robert C. Barton, deputy for West Wicklow; John 
R. Etchingham, deputy for East Wicklow. 



Appendixes. 



Every assertion in the foregoing address is founded upon facts. 
The^f olio wing appendixes are intended to cover the more vital. 

Appendix A. 

DEMOCRATIC FOUNDATION OF THE REPUBLIC. 

[Address, pars. 6, 7, and 9.] 
I. The National Plebiscite. 

GENERAL ELECTION, 1918. 

In December, 1918, a general election for parliamentary candidates was held in 
every constituency in Ireland. The result of that election was that— 

Of the total 101 representatives elected on the popular franchise (that is, excluding 
the privileged and duplicated university vote).i 

The Republicans secured .- - -. %"";•" i""" 1 '^^ 

The Irish Parliamentary Party, who wete self-determinationists and did not 
oppose the idea of a republic as such, but deemed it at the moment unattainable, 

secured „^ 

The official Unionists secured '^^ 

The Independent Unionists secured " 

1 There were 4 University seats: The National University returned 1 RepubUcan; the DubUn University 
returned 2 Unionists; the Belfast University returned 1 Unionist. 



8 THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 

Thus the Republican representatives won in a majority of 2^ to 1 over all other 
parties. 

The self-determinationists (Republicans and Parliamentarians together) secured a 
majority of nearly 3^ to 1 over those in favor of union with England. 

Of the total popular vote of 1,519,894, only 311, 210, that is a bare 20 per cent, were 
cast for union wdth England. 

BY PROVINCES. 

In the Province of Leinster, of its 27 members, every one elected with one excep- 
tion — and he by a majority of only 54 votes in a poll of 14,766 — was a Republican. 

In the Province of Munster, of its 24 members, every one elected with one excep- 
tion — and he a self-determinationist — was a Republican. 

In the Pro\dnce of Connaught, of its 13 members, every one elected was a Republican. 

In the Province of Ulster, of its 37 members, 20 were official Unionists, and 2 Inde- 
pendent Unionists. The remaining 15 opposed the connection with England, 10 
being Republicans and 5 Parliamentary Nationalists, and so self-determinationists. 

BY COUNTIES. 

Ireland is divided into 32 counties. 

In not one of these counties did the Unionists secure the entire representation. 
In only four did they poll a majority. 

On the other hand, the Republicans, who polled a majority in 27 counties, secured 
the entire representation in 24. 

Of the six Irish boroughs, not one returned an entirely Unionist representation. 
In only one of the six is the Unionist representation a majority, whereas four of the 
Irish boroughs returned an entirely Republican representation. 

The Province of Ulster, the attitude of which is so much misrepresented by English 
propaganda, has nine counties. In five of these counties the Republicans and self- 
determinationists combined polled a majority; in three they secured the entire repre- 
sentation. 

In no county, even in Ulster, did the Unionists secure the entire representation, 
and they obtained a majority in only four. Outside Antrim County, 14 of the mem- 
bers elected for Ulster were opposed to the British connection and only 10 in favor 
of that connection. In Antrim County alone, which includes the city of Belfast, 
did the Unionists secure anything approaching a homogeneous predominance. That 
county was allotted as many as 13 representatives. Of these, 12 were Unionists, so 
that over one-half of the total popular Unionist representation in Ireland came from 
a single county. 

This extraordinary degree of unanimity of opinion was registered by the Irish 
people despite active interference and aggression on the part of the English forces, 
both preceding and during the election. 

As can be seen by these figures, the pro-English minority in Ireland is relatively 
less than the minority in Schleswdg-Holstein who voted for union with Germany. 

Many of the newly established Republics in Europe contain larger minorities in 
favor of a continuance of their political relationships of union with the Central Empires 
than the minority in Ireland in favor of union with England. 

The present coalition government of England was elected by what is regarded as 
an almost unprecedented majority, yet the republican government of Ireland can 
show as the basis of its right a far greater relative majority. The Coalitionists, includ- 
ing the Independent Unionists and the National Democratic Party, secured a vote of 
only 39.7 per cent of the total British register, whereas the Irish Republicans secured 
50.2 per cent of the total Irish register. 

That there was no ambiguity about the issue put to the electors is admitted gen- 
erally and borne witness to by the Irish Unionist Alliance — that is, the pro-English 
Party in Ireland. In a statement on the 1918 elections this body officially states: 

"The general election of December, 1918, was the first occasion when the numerical 
strength of Sinn Fein could be officially known, for they contested all the constitu- 
encies against the sitting home-rule members. They stood boldly on the issue of an 
Irish republic, free from all connections with England, and on that issue swept the 
Home Rule Party out of existence." 



THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 9 

II. Confirmatory Plebiscitk. 

LOCAL COUNCIL ELECTIONS, 1920. 

More than a year after the national plebiscite the elections for local governing 
bodies were held. The national issue was again the dominant one, and as the elec- 
tions were carried out on the basis of proportional representation, the results are a 
trustworthy index of the popular sentiment. 

Per cent. 

Of the city and urban councils 77. 

Of the rural district councils 88. 4 

Of the boards of guardians 89. 6 

Of the county councils 87. 9 

were carried in favor of the republic, give allegiance to Dail Eireann (the national 
assembly) and carry out its decrees. 

The present British prime minister admitted in the House of Commons in April, 
1920— 

"If you ask the people of Ireland what they would accept, by an emphatic majority 
they would say: 'We want independence and an Irish republic' There is absolutely 
no doubt about that. The elected representatives of Ireland now by a clear, definite 
majority have declared in favor of independence." 



Appendix B. 
DEPOPULATION OF IRELAND. 

[Address, par. 4.] 

The depopulation of Ireland during the last three-quarters of a century is without 
parallel anywhere in the civilized world. 
The following table indicates: 

1. The growth of Ireland's population during a comparatively peaceful period, 
although one marked by frequent famines and increasing emigration. 

2. The striking depopulation of a later period in which famine and emigration 
were intensified and accompanied by coercion and eviction. 

Total population and population per square mile. 





England and Wales. 


Scotland. 


Ireland. 


Year. 


Total 
population. 


Population 

per square 

mile. 


Total 
population. 


Population 

per square 

mile. 


Total 
population. 


Population 

per square 

mile. 


1801 


8, 892, 536 
12,000,236 
15,914,148 
16,739,136 
17,927,609 
22, 712, 266 
36,070,492 


152 
206 
272 
287 
308 
392 
618 


1,608,420 
2,091,521 
2,620,184 
2,742,167 
2,888,742 
3,360,018 
4,760,904 


54 
70 
88 
92 
97 
113 
160 


5,395,456 
6,801,827 
8,175,124 
8,295,061 
6,552,385 
5,412,377 
4,390,219 


166 


1821 


209 


1841 


251 


1845 


255 


1851 


201 


1871 


167 


1911 


13f 







Thus we see that — 

In the period 1801 to 1911 whilst the population of England and Wales was more 
than quadrupled, and that of Scotland trebled, the population of Ireland was reduced 
one-fifth. 

In the period 1845 to 1911 whilst the population of England and Wales was more 
than doubled, and that of Scotland almost doubled, the population of Ireland was 
reduced by one-half. 

To appreciate how unique this appalling record is, one has only to study in compari- 
son the population statistics over the same period of the subject nations on the Euro- 
pean continent. The liberation of these nations from the oppression of alien rule 
was deemed a worthy objective in the great World War. 



10 



THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 



Austrian Poland: 

1846 4, 461, 400 

1913 (increase. 84 per cent) 8, 211, 770 

Ireland : 

1846 ■ 8, 287, 848 

1913 (decrease, 47 per cent) 4, 379, 076 

Prussian Poland: 

1855 1, 392, 636 

1910 (increase, 50 per cent) 2, 099, 831 

Ireland : 

1855 6,014,665 

1910 (decrease, 27 per cent) 4, 385, 421 

Russian Poland: 

1871 '. 6, 193, 710 

1915 (increase, 97 per cent) 12, 247, 600 

Ireland : 

1871 5, 398, 179 

1915 (decrease, 19.7 per cent) 4, 337, 000 

Bohemia: 

1831 3, 900, 000 

1913 (increase, 75 per cent) - 6, 860, 000 

Ireland : 

1831 7, 767, 401 

1913 (decrease, 43 per cent) 4, 379, 076 

Finland : 

1850 1, 636, 915 

1914 (increase, 99 per cent) 3, 269, 401 

Ireland : 

1850 6, 877, 849 

1914 (decrease, 36 per cent) 4, 381, 398 

Esthonia : 

1856 293, 559 

1915 (increase, 54 per cent) 512, 500 

Ireland : 

1856 5, 972, 851 

1915 (decrease, 27 per cent) 4, 337, 000 

The misrule of these nations has been a byword, yet had Ireland fared under British 
rule as well as these nations under their oppressors her present population would be 
about four times what it is. Had Ireland fared as well as Austrian Poland under the 
Hapsburgs, for example, her population in 1913 would have been not 4,379,076 but 
15,257,888. 

The destruction of Ireland's population is even .greater than the above would show, 
for, with the exception of Holland, the birth rate in Ireland is the highest in Europe, 
as is proved by the following table issued in the year 1910 by the statistical department 
of the GoA'ernment of Bavaria: 

— The birth rate — Legitimate births (per 1,000 tvomen). 



Country. 


1876-1885 


1886-1895 


1896-1905 


Country. 


1876-1885 


1886-1895 


1896-1905 


German Empire — 


268 
273 
276 
267 
288 
266 
246 
234 
248 
239 
167 


258 
265 
263 
250 
259 
248 
250 
224 
249 
230 
150 


243 
250 
259 
216 
262 
251 


England and Wales. 
Scotland 


250 
271 
250 
264 
293 
244 
240 
262 


229 
255 
245 
236 
286 
235 
231 
259 
235 
246 
237 


203 
235 


Bavaria . 


Ireland 


264 


Saxony 


Belgium 


213 


Wurtemburg 

Baden 


Holland 


272 


Denmark 

Sweden 


217 


Austria . . ... 




Hungary 




Norway 




Italy 


232 


Portugal 






Finland 

Servia 


259 




France 


234 













This conclusion is confirmed by the Report of the Proceedings of the London Statis- 
tical Society (1906), with the addition that: 

"Ireland, * * * among all countries from which figures can be obtained, shows 
an increased fertility." 



THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 



11 



Apparently, however, the British Government are not satisfied with the destruction 
the}^ have already wrought. Lord French, the chief representative of that Govern- 
ment, revealed the official mind and the policy it was intended to pursue when in an 
interview with the special correspondent of Le Journal, Paris, on January 23, 1920, he 
said : 

"The main cause of the trouble is that during the last five years emigration has 
practically ceased. There are here 100,000 to 200,000 young men between the ages 
of 18 and 25 Avho in normal times would have expatriated themselves." 

On this plane alone English rule in Ireland stands condemned. John Stuart Mill, 
an Englishman, in his Principles of Political Economy, says: 

"The land of Ireland, like the land of every other country, belongs to the people 
who inhabit it * * * and when the inhabitants of a country leave it 'en masse' 
because a Government does not leave them room to live, that Government is already 
judged and condemned." 

Appendix C. 
DESTRUCTION OF WEALTH AND FINANCIAL ROBBERY. 

[Address, par. 4.1 
(a) Overtaxation. 

In 1896 a commission set up by the British Government reported that Ireland had 
been taxed since the year 1800 by at least £2,750,000 per year over and above the con- 
tribution fixed bv the act of union. (See Report of Financial Relations Commission, 
Blue Book, C. 8262.) 

In 1896 the Irish revenue contributed was £8,034,000. For the year ending March 
31, 1920, the revenue contributed was £50,615,000. England has, therefore, since 
she discovered Ireland was overtaxed, multiplied the collection of taxes in Ireland 
six times over. 

The following table shows how Ireland's taxation was increased since England 
annexed the Irish exchequer at the close of the Napoleonic Wars: 



Revenue per head. 



Ireland. 



Encland. 



Year ending Jan. 5, 1820... 
Year ending Mar. 31, 1920. 



£ s.d. 

15 5 

11 10 7 



£ s.d. 

3 13 

21 19 3 



Increase: Ireland, fourteenfold; England, fivefold. 

The following table shows Irish revenue and expenditure during the past five 
years and the surplus remaining in England's hands after deducting Irish expendi- 
ture (see British Official Returns, White Paper No. 163 of 1919, and Nos. 239 and 245 
of 1920): 



Year ending Mar. 31— 


Revenue. 


Expendi- 
ture. 


.Surplus. 


1916 


£17,929,000 
23, 766, 500 
26,865,000 
37, 275, 000 
50, 615, 000 


£12, .597, 000 
12,686,000 
13,002,000 
22, 161, 500 
29,221,000 


£5, ,332, 000 


1917 


11,080,500 


1918 


13,863,000 


1919 


15,113,500 


1920 


21,394,000 







A great deal of the expenditure on alleged Irish services is really paid out to English 
manufacturers to whom are allotted all the contracts for supplies for Irish services. 
In addition, England pockets the whole of the surplus. The figures for expenditure 
also include such items as (for 1920) £3,296,000 for that portion of the army of occupa- 
tion known as the police force; £379,500 for the English law courts in the country; 
£23,000 for the English lord lieutenant; £42,500 for the English chief secretary in 



12 THE STRUGGLE OF THE lEISH PEOPLE. 

Ireland; £328,500 for Enslish prisons in Ireland; .£315,000 for public offices and insti- 
tutions situated in England; £39,000 for universities and schools in Great Britain; 
and much of the remainder on the 50 extravagant and irresponsible boards which 
England has set up to govern the country in England's interests. 

(6) Surplus War Taxation. 

Over and aliove the overtaxation of £2,750,000 per annum Ireland has paid in the 
last six years a sum of £102,033,000 for the war to free small nations. That money 
was spent in English munition factories and to raise and equip huge armies, one of 
which is now used as an army of occupation in Ireland to murder liberty. The 
figures are: 

Revenue conlrihided. 
Year ending Mar. 31 — 

1915 £12, 389, 500 

1916 17, 929, 000 

1917 23, 766, 500 

1918 26, 865, 000 

1919 37, 275, 000 

1920 50, 615, 000 

Total 168, 940, 000 

Deduct six years' taxation at 1914 rate, £11,134,500 66, 807, 000 

Balance 102, 033, 000 

(c) Capital Loss in Population. 

One aspect of the depopulation of Ireland during the past half century is that it 
represents a loss in capital of at least £3,152,500,000. 
The increase in Irish population from 1821 to 1841 is: 

Irish population. 

1821 6,801,827 

1831 7, 767, 401 

1841 8,175,124 

On the basis of this rate of increase the present population of Ireland should be 
17,000,000. 

The actual decrease in Ireland's population between 1845 and 1911 is 3,912,000. 

The real loss in population is 12,610,000. 

This represents a capital loss in money (at £250 per head) of £3,152,500,000. 

(d) Loss in Absentee Rents. 

Ireland has paid in rents to absentee landlords, mostly resident in England, a sum 
calculated at not less than £1,000,000,000. 

This sum raised in Ireland and spent outside of Ireland has been a dead loss to the 
country. 

Summary. 

If we add these various sums together: 

(a) Overtaxation at two and three-quarter millions per year for 120 

years (capital sum only, exclusive of interest) £330, 000, 000 

(6) Surplus war taxation..' 102,033,000 

(c) Capital loss in population 3,152,500,000 

{d) Absentee rents 1, 000, 000, 000 

Total 4, 584, 533, 000 

We thus find that English domination has cost Ireland during the past 120 years 
the almost increditable sum of £4,584,533,000. 

The entu-e German war indemnity of £11,300,000,000, payable in 42 years, is cal- 
culated to have a present value of £4,032,857,036. 

It is thus clear that England during the past 120 years has robbed Ireland, a small 
country of 32,000 square miles and a population of some 4,000,000, of a sum exceeding 



THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 



13 



by £550,000,000 tlie present value of the entire indemnity which the conference of 
the entente allies decided to exact from Germany, a sum which many experts contend 
it would impoverish even the great German Empire to pay. 

If to the above be added the losses due to the repression of industry and the destruc- 
tion of trade by the direct action of Britain, it will be seen that to say: "In the course 
of little over a century we have been robbed of wealth amounting to an empire's 
ransom" — is literal truth and not a rhetorical exaggeration. 



Appendix D. 

i. table showing the intensification op british aggression in ireland during 

four years. 

[Address, pars. 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15.] 

The following figures showing the actiAdties of England's forces in Ireland are sum- 
marized from the reports published in the Irish daily press, which was subject to a 
rigorous official British censorship during the five years ending September, 1919, 
followed since by a continuous and unrelaxing system of military terrorism: 



Murder of Irish citizens 

Armed assaults on unarmed civilians.. 
Raids on Irish houses and institutions 

Arrests (political) 

Deportation of Irish citizens 

Courts-martial 

Sen fences on poUtical charges 

Proclamations and suppressions 

Suppressions of newspapers 



1917 


1918 


1919 


7 


6 


10 


18 


81 


476 


n 


260 


13, 782 


3-19 


1,107 


959 


24 


91 


20 


36 


62 


209 


269 


973 


636 


2 


32 


335 


3 


12 


25 



203 

1,184 

48,474 

7,287 

705 

630 

775 

203 



1 See below. 

II. DETAILS FOR 1920. 

(a) Outrages on the person: 

Deliberate assassinations of representative Irish citizens 69 

Murders of prisoners in custody after torture 36 

Murders of Irish citizens by indiscriminate firing 98 

Civilians wounded by bullet or bayonet 589 

Civilians flogged and tortured 185 

Armed assaults on unarmed ci\dlians 1, 184 

Political arrests 7, 287 

Deportation of Irish citizens 705 

Courts-martial 63.0 

Sentences on political charges 775 

Aggregate total of sentences imposed, 613 years 9 months. 

(b) Outrages on property: 

Raids on Irish homes and institutions 48, 474 

Houses deliberately destroyed or damaged 875 

Shops deliberately destroyed or damaged 965 

Factories deliberately destroyed or damaged 14 

Creameries deliberately destroyed or damaged 44 

Farmsteads deliberately burned 171 

Stores of farm produce deliberately burned 299 

(c) Outrages on civic liberty and public property: 

Proclamations and suppressions 203 

Newspaper offices and printing works destroyed or damaged 12 

City and town halls destroyed or damaged 15 

Other public halls destroyed or damaged 91 

Acts of sabotage by English forces 903 



14 THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 

III. JANUARY AND FEBRUARY, 1921. 

During the first two months, January and February, of the present year there has 
been a further intensification of the English terror. Amongst the reported activities 
of the English forces in this period there have been: 

Murders and assassinations 67 

Woundings of unarmed citizens 71 

Men and boys tortured . ,. 15 

Men and boys beaten with rifle butts 22 

Men and boys flogged in the public streets and squares 29 

Private houses wholly or partially destroyed 250 

Bank wrecked 1 

Irish school destroyed 1 

Shops wholly or partially destroyed • 62 

( dreameries wholly or partially destroyed 4 

Public halls wholly or partially destroyed 5. 

Towns ' ' shot up " 14 

Crops on GO farms burned; many general raids, lootings, and robberies. 

IV. BRITISH AGGRESSION IN 1917 AND 191S. 

[Address, par. 13.] 

In connection with these tables of figures it is well to call attention to the fact that 
the English Government alleges that their regime of terror in Ireland is necessary 
because of the campaign of crime. An examination of the Irish newspaper files for 
the years 1917 and 1918 shows that there was not in these ^'•ears even an alleged cam- 
paign of crime. There was but one policeman killed in those two years; he died as 
a result of injuries received while leading a baton charge to disperse a peaceful 
public meeting. In 1917, 22 of the English assize judges in Ireland found "a re- 
markable absence of crime" on their circuits, covering practically the whole area 
of Ireland. In 1918, 16 of these judges had the same report to make. Yet during 
these two years English people and soldiers carried on a constant and consistent 
campaign of aggression to provoke the people into retaliation. Public meetings of 
the people were suppressed or dispersed -ftdth batons or bayonets. There were 1,456 
people arrested for political offenses, over 100 civilians were tried by court-martial, 
1,242 men and women were given savage sentences — as many as 5 years' penal 
servitude being inflicted for the reading of a Sinn Fein manifesto — 115 leaders of 
nationalist opinion were deported to English jails without charge or trial, 15 national- 
ist papers were suppressed, 6 men died as a result of prison treatment, and 7 men 
were brutally murdered by English soldiers and police. The murderers were not 
only unpunished, but were selected for promotion in the service of their employers. 

V._ LIST OF IRISH TOWNS AND VILLAGES RAVAGED BY ENGLISH TROOPS FROM SEPTEMBER 
9, 1919, TO FEBRUARY 28, 1920. 

[Address, par. 15.] 
1919. 
Sept. 9. Fermoy, County Cork, sacked. 
Nov. 6. Kinsale, County Cork, partially sacked. 
12. Cork city partially sacked. 
1920. 
Jan. 22. Thurles, County Tipperary, sacked. 
Feb. 27. Three houses in Dublin wrecked. 
Mar. 1. Thurles, County Tipperary, partially wrecked. 

7. Several houses in Thurles, County Tipperary, wrecked. 
12. Many houses in Cork city wrecked. 

22. Many shop windows in Dublin wrecked. 

Apr. 26. Kilcommon, County Tipperary, partially wrecked. 

27. Many houses in Limerick city vvrecked. 

May 13. Houses at Thurles, County Tipperary, fired and bombed. 

15. Houses at Bantry, County Cork, wrecked. 

28. Kilmallock, County Limerick, sacked. 
June 23. Bantry, County Cork, partially sacked. 

23. Houses in Limerick city wrecked. 

26. Many houses in Bantry, Coimty Cork, wrecked and fired. 



THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 15 

1920. 
June 27. Fermoy, County Cork, .vrecked. 

27. Lismore, County Waterford, sacked. 

27. Many houses at Newcastle West, ('ounty Limerick, wrecked and fired. 

28. Limerick city partially sacked. 

July 1. Newspaper offices at Limerick city wrecked and fired. 

6. Residence at Ballylanders, County Limerick, bombed and wrecked.- 

15. Tralee, County Kerry, partially sacked. 

16. Houses at Arklow, County Wicklow, bombed and wrecked. 

19. Emly, County Limerick, creamery and houses wrecked. 

20. Tuam, County Galway, sacked. 

20. National Foresters' Hall at Enniscorthy, County Wexford, wrecked. 

21. Houses at Limerick city bombed and wrecked. 

22. Leap, County Cork, sacked. 

23. Caltra, County Galway, partially sacked. 

30. TJpperchurch, County Tipperary, partially sacked. 

31. Tipi>erary town partially sacked. 

31. Business premises at Cork city sacked. 
Aug. 2. Many houses at Castlerea, County Roscommon, partially wrecked. 

5. Doon, County Limerick, sacked. 

8. Houses at Kildorrery, County Cork, wrecked, and looted. 
12. Sinn Fein Hall at Enniscorthy, County Wexford, wrecked. 

15. Limerick city partially wrecked. 

16. Templemore, ('ounty Tipperary, partially sacked. 

17. Creameries at Castleiny. Loughmore, and Killea, County Tipperary, de- 

stroyed. 

21. Oramuore, County Galway, sacked. 

24. Several houses at Dundalk, County Louth, wrecked. 

25. Kill, County Kildai*e, wrecked. 

26. Creamery at Knocklong, County Limerick, destroyed. 

26. Shanagolden. County Limerick, partially sacked. 

27. Cobh, County Cork, 'sacked. 

Sept. ]. Ballaghadereen, County Mayo, sacked. 

2. Inniscarra, County Cork, partially sacked. 

10. Tullow, County Carlow, sacked. 

18. Several houses wrecked and fired in County Limerick. 

19. Several houses at SalthilL County Galway, wrecked and fired. 

20. Carrick-on-Shannon, County Lei trim, partially sacked. 
20. Balbriggan. County Dublin, sacked. 

22. Drumshamljo, County lieitrim, partially sacked. 

22. Houses at Tuam, County Galway, and Galway city, wrecked. 

22. Ennistymon, County Clare, sacked. 

22. Lahinch, County Clare, sacked. 

22. Miltown-Malbay, County Clare, sacked. 

22. Houses at Galway city wrecked and looted. 

24. Newspaper offices and houses at Galway city bombed and wrecked. 

25. Several houses at Athlone, County Westmeath, wrecked. 
25. Houses at Killorglin, County Kerry, wrecked. 

27. Trim, County Meath. sacked. 

27. Silvermines Creamery, County Tipperary, burned 

27. Fifteen houses in Cork wrecked and bombed. 

28. Mallow, County Cork, sacked. 

28. Houses in Clonmore, County Carlow, wrecked and fired. 
28. Houses in Ballyshannon, County Donegal, wrecked. 

28. Drimoleague, County Cork, houses sacked. 

29. Gymnasium, Listowel, County Kerry, wrecked. 

30. Tubbercurry, County Sligo, sacked. 

30, Creameries at Ballyara and Achonry, County Sligo, burned. 
30. Houses at Kilshenane, Cashel, County Tipperary, burned. 
Oct. 2. Ballinagare, County Roscommon, sacked. 

2. Moylett's stored, Galway, wrecked and looted. 

8. Farmhouse, Meelick, County Clare, burned. 

9. Kildimo, County Limerick, sacked; creamery burned. 

9. Mr. Halpin's farmstead, Pallaskenry, County Limerick, burned. 

9. Houses in Blackboy Pike, County Limerick, biuTied. 

9. Cork City Hall burned. 

9. Houses on Ellis's Quay, Dublin, wrecked. 



16 THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 

'1920. 
Oct. 13. Clifden, County Galway, partially sacked. 

16. Athlone (County We&tmeath) Printing Works and some houses sacked and 

burned. 
16.- Houses bombed in Dublin. 

17. Tralee, County Kerry, partially sacked. 

18. Houses in Tipperary wrecked. 

18. Abbeydorney Creamery, County Kerry, burned. 

18. Finuge Sinn Fein Hall, County Kerry, burned. 

18. Three farmsteads in Kanturk, County Cork, burned. 

20. Leap, County Cork, partially sacked. 

21. Houses in Newceston and Coolanagh, County Cork, burned. 
21. Houses at Cussen Point, County Westmeath, burned. 

21. Houses in Tipperary town, wrecked. 

22. Bandon, County Cork, partially sacked. 

24. Hosiery factory burned in Bandon, County Cork. 

24. Houses in Tubbercurry, County Sligo, wrecked. 

24. Lixnaw, County Kerry, creamery partially burned. 

26. Sinn Fein Hall, Derrylahan, County Westmeath, burned. 

27. Houses and farmsteads in Cliffoney, County Sligo, burned. 
27. Houses in Skerries, County Dublin, burned. 

27. Houses in Galway city burned. 

28. Ballintrillick Creamery, County Sligo, burned. 
28. Houses in Bandon, County Cork, bombed. 

28. Houses in Shrule, County Mayo, burned. 

30. Houses and farmsteads, Lecarrow (Feakle), County Clare, burned. 

30. Templemore, County Tipperary, sacked. 

31. Creamery and farmhouses, Littleton, County Tipperary, burned. 
31. Tipperary town sacked. 

31. Dungannon, County Tyrone, partially sacked. 

31. Tullamore, Iving's County, sacked. 

31. County Hall and business houses, Tralee, County Kerry, burned. 

31. Creamery and business houses, Ballyduff, County Kerry, burned. 

31. Killybegs, County Donegal, partially sacked. , 

31. Edgeworthstown, County Longford, partially sacked. 

Nov. 1. Tralee, County Kerry, partially sacked. 

1. Houses in Clara, King's County, wrecked. 

1. O'Brien's Bridge Village, County Clare, sacked. 

1. Town Hall, Miltown-Malbay, County Clare, burned. 

1. Farmsteads at Inch Listowel, County Kerry, burned. 

1. Shops wrecked in Thurles, County Tipperary. 

1. Houses burned in Dingle, County Kerry. 

2. Temperance Hall, Longford, burned. 

2. Houses and farmsteads, O'Brien's Bridge, County Clare, burned. 

2. Houses in Athlone burned. 

2. Nenagh, County Tipperary, sacked. 

2. Houses in Auburn, Glasson, County Westmeath, burned. 

3. Athlone (County Westmeath), Printing Works burned. 

3. Ballymote, County Sligo, partially sacked and creamery burned. 

3. Houses wrecked in Roscommon. 

4. Tralee, County Kerry, again sacked. 
4. Granard, County Longford, sacked. 

4. Nenagh, County Tipperary, partially sacked. 

4. Business premises burned at Athlone, County Westmeath. 

4. Garvagh Hall, County Leitrim, burned. 

4. Shannon Vale Creamery, Ballyduff, County Kerry, bui-ned. 

5. Houses bombed in Leap, County Cork. 

5. Youghal, County Cork, partially sacked. 

6. Houses and farmsteads in Coosan, County Westmeath, burned. 

6. Derry City, houses homed and destroyed. 

1-6. Crops burned in Ballyduff district. County Kerry. 

7. Houses wrecked, Ballintubber, County Roscommon. 

8. Milford Creamery, County Cork, partially burned. 

8. Houses and farmsteads at Gort, County Galway, burned. 

8. Technical school, Carnegie Library, and other houses, Tralee, County 

Kerry, burned. 

9. Carrick-on-Shanuon, County Leitrim, partially sacked. 



THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 17 

1920. 
Nov. 9. Farranfore, County Keiry, sacked. 

9. Ballybrack, County Kerry, sacked. 

9. Gortalee, County Kerry, sacked. 

9. Houses at Castleisland, County Kerry, burned. 

9. Village Hall, Drunisna, County Leitrim, burned. 

9. Two public halls, Johnson's Bridge, County Longford, burned. 

9. Business and private houses, TuUamore, Kings County, burned. 
11. Houses in Enniscorthy, County Wexford, wrecked. 
11. Houses in Kilmalley, County Clare, biu'ned. 
11. Houses in Aljbeydorney, County Kerry, burned. 
11. Licensed premises in Longford, wrecked. 
13. Tipperary town partially sacked. 

13. Creamery and other houses burned at Ballydwyer, County Kerry. 
13. Houses at Lisrue, County Clare, burned. 

13. Farm produce and houses, O'Brien's Bridge, County Clare, burned. 
]5. Houses in Tipperary town destroyed. 
15. Houses, Limerick City, bombed. 
15. Houses, Cappafarna, County Galway, wrecked. 
15. Kilcommon. County Tipperary, "shot iip" and cows mutilated. 
15. Houses and farmsteads at Bohercrowe, County Tipperary, burned. 

15. Irish College and Cooperative Stores, Cloghaneely, County Donegal, burned. 

16. Houses in Tipperary town burned. 
16. Houses, Leap, County Cork, burned. 

16. Sinn Fein Hall, Dun Laoghaire, County Dublin, burned. 

16. Hibernian Hall, Derrylahan, Coalisland, County Tyrone, burned. 

17. Ballinamore, Catholic Hall, County Leitrim, wrecked. 
17. Houses in Listra, County Clare, burned. 

17. Houses in Cloone, County Leitrim, wrecked. 

17. Houses in Drumhallow, County Leitrim, wrecked. 

17. Houses in Aughavas, County Leitrim, wrecked. 

17. Parochial Hall, Fennagh, County Leitrim, wrecked. 

17. Farmhouses, Killyfea, County Leitrim, burned. 

17. Parochial Hall, Drum^illey, County Leitrim, burned. 

17. Parochial Hall, Aughwilliam, County Leitrim, burned. 

20. Village of Barna, County Galway, sacked. 

20. Houses, Cork City, partially wrecked. 

21. Village Hall and Gaelic Rooms, Newry, wrecked. 

21. Houses, Tubridmore, County Kerry, burned. 

22. Swords, County Dublin, partially sacked. 
22. Houses, Barna, County Galway, burned. 

22. Boat Club Houses, Carrick-on-Shannon. County Leitrim, burned. 

22. Houses, Millstreet, County Cork, sacked. 

22. Duhallow Creamery, Nenagh, County Tipperary, burned. 

22. Houses, Ballylnngford, County Kerry, burned. 

22. Houses, Beltra, County Sligo, burned. 

22. Houses, Derrynocheran, burned. 

23. Irish College, Enniscrone, Countv Sligo, burned. 

24. Houses, Mount-Temple, County Westmeath, burned. 

25. Sinn Fein Hall, Pipers' Club and North East Ward Sinn Fein Club, Cork 

City, burned. 

26. Milford Creamery, County Cork, burned. 

27. Many houses, Cork City, burned. 

29. Houses, Waterfall, County Cork, burned. 

29. 30 houses, Greave's Cross, Coimty Cork, burnea. 

29. Houses in Belmont, County Galway, burned. 

29. Houses in Kinvara, County Galway, burned. 

29. Sinn Fein Hall and other houses. Camp, Coimty Kerry, burned. 

29. Houses, Thurles, County Tipperary, bombed. 

29. Central Sinn Fein Hall and "Freeman," Dublin, partially wrecked. 

29. Sinn Fein Hall, Limerick, burnea. 

29. Houses, Ballylongford, County Kerry, burned. 

29. Houses in Cork City burned. 

30. Many houses in Cork City burned. 

30. Boy Scout's Hall, Limerick City, burned. 
Dec. 1. Many houses, Cork City, burned, 

S. Doc. 8, 67-1 2 



18 THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 

1920. 
Dec. 1. Houses, <no_o;heon, County Tipperary, burned. 
1. Houses, Cahii-civeen, Ooiinty Kerry, wrecked. 

1. Killarney, County Kerry, sacked. 

2. Houses, Fermoy, County Cork, burned. 
2. Houses, Tipperary town, burned. 

2. Houses, Glencoole, County Tipperary, burned. 
2. Houses, Kilty, County Clare, burned. 
2. Houses, Mountshaunon, County Clare, burned. 
2. Houses, Camp, County Kerry, burned. 

2. Houses, Castlegregory, County Kerry, burned. 

3. Temperance Hall, Dunleer, County Louth, v/recked. 
3. Village Hall, Geevagh, County Sligo, burned. 

3. Village Hall, Gleann, County Sligo, bmned. 

4. Houses, Timoleague, County Cork, burned. 

4. Houses, Ivilbrogan Hill, County Cork, burned. 

4. Village Hall, Finuge, County Kerry, burned. 

5. Houses at Race Course, Galway, burned. 

5. Houses at Kilbeggan, County Westmeath, burned. 

5. Longford town, houses burned. 

5. Houses at Castleplunkett, County Roscommon, burned. 

5. Houses at MUstreet, County Cork, burned. 

6. Houses burned, Kilbrogan Hill, County Cork. 

7. Cork city shot up and houses wrecked. 

7. Houses at Clonakilty, County Cork, burned. 

8. Houses, Tipperary town, wrecked. 

8. Houses, Carrick-on-Shannon, County Leitrim, burned. 

8. Houses, Newton (Oola), County Limerick, burned. 
10. Rathcormack, County Cork, sacked. 
10. Houses, Granard, County Longford, sacked. 
10. Houses, Castlelyons, County Cork, burned. 
10. Houses, Cork city, wrecked. 
10. Public Hall, Ballingar, Kings County, burned. 
10. Houses, Ballinalee, County Longford, burned. 
10. Camlough, County Down, sacked. 

10. Houses, Newry, County Down, burned. 

11. Houses, Grantstown, County Tipperary, burned. 
11. Public Hall, Closetoken, County Galway, burned. 
11. Large section of Cork city burned. 

13. Ballinalee, County Longford, sacked. 

16. Houses, vicinity Kilcommon, County Tipperary, burned. 

16. Houses, Tipperary town, burned. 

16. Houses, Gallery's Cross, County Clare, burned. 

16. Houses, Kilfenora, County Clare, burned. 

16. Houses, Ballina, County Clare, burned. 

17. Houses, Swamlinbar, County Cavan, burned. 

17. Houses, Tipperary town, burned. 

18. Houses in Tipperary burned. 

19. Farmhouses, Rathronan, County Tipperary, burned. 
19. Village Hall, Corinshego, County Down, burned. 

19. Houses, Sallymount, County Limerick, burned. 

20. Farmhouses, Nine-Mile House, County Tipperary, burned. 

24. Shops, Castleblayney, County Monaghan, wrecked. 

25. ' 'Freeman's Journal " office, Dublin, partially burned. 

25. Two creameries and farmhouses, Athea, County Limerick, burned. 

25. Houses in Tipperary town burned. 

25. Houses in Ballydwyer, County Kerry, burned. 

27. Houses, Tipperary town, burned. 

28. Houses, Beleek, County Armagh, burned. 

28. Cushinstown, Cooperative Hall, County Wexford, partially burned. 
30. Houses in Bandon, County Cork, burned. 

30. ' 'Freeman" office, Dublin, partially burned. 

31. Farm crops burned, Bansha and Kilfeacle, County Tipperary. 
31. Houses burned at Cutteen, County Tipperary. 

31. Farm crops burned, Kilmoyle, County Tipperary. 



THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 19 

1921. 

•Jan. 1. Seven lionses and two shops, garage and engineering works, burned at Midle- 
ton. County Cork. 
^. Temperance Hall at Coosan, County Westmeath, burned. 

4. Six houses burned at Meelin. County Cork. 

5. Shop at Scariff, County Clare, burned. 

6. Two residences and a shop burned at Elphin. County Roscommon. 

7. Five houses burned at Camlough, County Armagh. 

7. Creamery at Turraree, County Kerry, burned. 

8. Tramore, County Waterford, Sinn Fein Hall wrecked. 
8. Houses burned at Ballinalee, County Longford. 

30. FarmhoiLses destroyed at Gairybawn, County Monaghan. 

11. Shop fronts wrecked at Ballina. 

13. Shop ])iuued and three houses wrecked at Ballybay, County ^lonaghaii. 

13. Shop burned at Kilbeggan. County "Westmeath. 

14. Railwaymen's Recreation Hall, Limerick, destroyed. 

15. Residence burned at Tnnishannon, County Cork. 

17. Two shops biu-ned in ('appawhite. County Tipperary. 

18. One shop, six farmhouses, five private residences, and the crops on six farms, 

destroyed at Headford, County Galway. 

19. Wine and spirit store burned at CuUyhanna, County Armagh. 

20. Temporary business premises burned in Tipperary. 
20. Shop fronts wrecked at Ballina, County Mayo. 

20. One creamery. 1 bank, 2 shops, 4 private re.°idences, 16 farmhouses, and 
crops on 20 farms destroyed at Six-Mile Bridge. County Clare. Cattle on 
many farms shot. 

20. Three shops destroyed in Cork City. 

21. Business xjremises burned at Cappawhite, County Tipperary. 
21. Farmhouses burned at Clougheleigh, County Tijiperary. 

21. Furniture Inuned at Borrisoleigh, County Tipperary. 
21 . Crops biuned on farms at Togher, County Tipperary. 
21. Residence at Ballinure, County Tipperary, bimied. 
23. Crops burned at O'Brien's Bridge, County Clare. 
23. Crops burned at C'lonlara, County Clare. 

23. Farmhouses, residences, and crops burned at Moate, County Westmeath. 

24. Farmhouses burned at Clones, (Jounty Monaghan. 

29. Stores and stabling destroyed at Mullinavat, County Kilkenny. 

29. Two shops, grocery store, and drapery premises destroyed at Kingwilliams- 

town, County Kerry. 

30. Destruction of Cullenswood House, Dublin, owned by Mrs. Pearse, mother 

of P. H. Pearse and W. Pearse, executed in 1916. 

30. Farmhouse burned at Lenenagh, County Cork. 

31. Hotel bombed in Galway City. 

31. Farmhouses burned at Knockfuro. ( 'ounty Tipperary. 
Feb. 1. Two business premises burned in Castleisland. County Kerry. 
2. Mahon's Hotel, Galway. fired into and burned. 

2. Farmhouses burned at Newport, County Tipperary. 

3. House and piiblic hall destroyed at Burgatia, County Cork. 

3. Houses destroyed at Ballinalee. County Longford. Crops on one farm 

destroyed. 
3. Four houses and one shop destroyed at Kingwilliamstown, County Kerry. 

3. Three houses destroyed at Ballinahassig. County Cork. 

4. One shop destroyed at Kilbrittain County Cork. 

4. Two houses and two shops destroyed in New Pallas District, County Lim- 
erick. 
4. Crops destroyed on four farms at Emly, County Limerick. 

6. Houses destroyed at Duncomogue. County Limerick. 

7. Several houses wrecked near Pallasgreen," County Limerick. 

8. Many houses and farm produce burned at Clareg-alway, County Galway. 

8. Houses burned in Ballinagh, County Cavan. 

9. Houses and farmsteads burned in Emly, County Limerick. 
9. Shop and crops on three farms destroyed at Bonlahy, County Longford. 
9. Three farmsteads burned at Emly, County Limerick. 

11. Eleven houses destroyed by fire in Abbeydorney, County Kerry. 

12. Farm produce burned at Kanturk, County Cork". 
12. Houses and farm produce burned at Abbeydorney. 
12. Crops on five farms destroyed, at Killenaule, County Tipperary. 



20 THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 

1921. 
Feb. 14. Five houses destroyed by fire near Thurles, County Tipperary. 

16. House destroyed at Douglas, County Cork. 

17. Crops burned near Ennistymon, County Clare. 

17. Gaelic Hall wrecked in Wexford town. 

18. House in lialbriggan. County Dublin, burned. 

19. House and Irish school burned in Cromogue, County We.xford. 
22. Public hall de^^troyed in Tralee, County Kerry. 

22. Public hall destroyed in Downpatrick, County Down. 

23. Ten houses and a public hall burned in Rosslea and Teemore, County 

Fermanagh. 

23. Farm houses burned near Xenagh. County Tipperary. 

24. Several houses and shops and a public hall wrecked in Donegal town. 

24. Several houses and business premises burned in Mountcharles, County 
Donegal. 

24. Twenty houses, including a creamery and business premises and private 

houses, destroyed by fire at Ballylongford, County Kerry. 

25. Inver Creamery and Cooperative Stores. County Donegal, destroyed by fire. 
28. Two farm houses and stores of farm produce burned at Lissycasey. County 

Clare. 

VI. LIST OF 270 IRISH CITIZENS MURDERED BY THE ENGLISH FORCES IN IRELAND 
DURING THE PERIOD JANUARY 1, 1920, TO FEBRUARY 28, 1921, ALONE. 

This list does not include any casualties sustained by the forces of the Irish Repub- 
lican army in action. It includes only the Irish citizens who were deliberately 
assassinated by special bands of murderers employed by the English Government 
or who were wantonly shot down or bayoneted whilst walking on the streets or 
employed on their daily work. 

1920. 
Jan. 20. Michael Darcy, Cooraclare, (.'ounty Clare, while working in a field was 
fired on by police. Running for shelter, he fell into a river, pursued by 
the police, who fired at the spot where he sank and also on his would-be 
rescuers. 
Feb. 2. Robert O'Dwyer, Limerick city, shot dead in his own shop by soldiers 
firing indiscriminately in the streets. 
2. Miss Helen Johnson, Limerick city, shot dead while on her way home by 

soldiers firing indiscriminately in the streets. 
12. James O'Brien, Rathdrum, County Wicklow, shot dead by police while 
conversing with a friend in the latter 's door. 
Mar. 20. Alderman Thomas MacCurtain, lord mayor of Cork, shot dead in the 
presence of his wite and young family by disguised police who entered his 
house at midnight. 
22. Miss Ellen Hendrick, Dublin city, shot dead by a riotous party of soldiers 

who broke barracks and fii'ed indiscriminately in the streets. 
22. Michael Cullen, Dublin city, shot dead by a riotous party of soldiers, who 
broke barracks and fired indiscriminately in the streets. 

27. James McCarthy, Thurles, County Tipperary, shot dead in his home b.y 

disguised police. His brother, Mr. Michael McCarthy, a Republican 
member of Thurles Urban Council, had demanded an inquiry into police 
rioting in the town. 

28. Thomas O'Dwyer, Bouladuff, County Tipperary, a prominent volunteer, 

shot dead in his house in presence of his sister by disguised police against 

whom the coroner's jury returned a verdict of willful murder. 
Apr. 14. James O'Loughlin, Miltown-Malbay, County Clare, shot dead when police 

and military fired on crowd singing round a bonfire to celebrate release 

of hunger-striking prisoners from Mountjoy jail. 
14. Patrick Hennessy, IVIiltown-Malbay, County Clare, shot dead under similar 

circumstances. 
14. Thomas O'Leary, shot dead under similar circumstances. (At the coroner's 

inquiry the jury returned a verdict of willful murder against police and 

soldiers, named in evidence.) 
14. Patrick Dowling, railwayman, Arklow, County Wicklow, shot dead by a 

riotous party of soldiers, who broke barracks and fired indiscriminately 

in the streets. 



THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 21 

1920. 
Apr. 17. Thomas MulhoUand, Dundalk, County Louth, prominent Sinn Feiner, 

was without provocation shot down in the street by a police patrol. 
May 18. James Saimders, Limerick city, shot dead by police, who opened fire on 
pedestrians in the public streets without warning and without provocation. 
June 6. Michael Walsh (13^ years), Cappoquin, County Waterford, killed by inili- 
tary motor lorry willfully driven into a group of people in the village 
street. 
8. Thomas Brett, Drombane, County Tipperary, mortally wounded by a 
British officer who fired at him in the public road without warning. 
25. Cornelius Crowley, Bantry, County Cork, a cripple bed-ridden boy, shot 
dead in his bed by police who broke into his house. 
July 1. Miss M. Counihane, Limerick city, fatally injured by police when escaping 
from her home in the offices of the Republican newspaper, the Munster 
News, into which the police at midnight had thrown bombs and petrol, 
firing and wrecking the premises. 
4. Richard Lumley, Rearcross, County Tipperaiy, aged 60, a half-witted man, 
returning from a wake in the early morning, shot dead by police and mili- 
tary without warning. 

4. Michael Small, LTpperchurch, County Tipperary, shot dead without warn- 

ing, by troops and police. At the inquest the British military authorities 
refused to produce officer in charge of firing party. 

5. James Dunne, Ballinatray, Courtown Harbour, County Wexford, shot dead _ 

in Ferns village by a policeman with whom he refused to drink, and who 
sought to pick a quarrel with him. 
8. Thomas Feery (aged 70), Ballycommon, Kings County, shot dead mthout 
warning, by military who fired into his house riddling the old man's body. 
18. James Burke, an ex-soldier of Cork city, bayonetted in the stomach by 
military, while halted with his hands above his head. 

18. William ^IcGrath, an ex-soldier of Cork, mortally wounded during promis- 

cuous firing by soldiers and police on imarmed civilians in the streets. 

19. John O'Brien, aged 18, shot dead in Cork city while assisting an old lady 

who was woimded during promiscuous firing in the streets by soldiers. 

21. Daniel McGrath, aged 18 years, one of a social gathering at Coracunna 
Cross, County Cork, which dispersed in terror on a shot being fired from 
a military lorry. McGrath was shot dead when running for cover. 

21. Thomas McDonnell shot dead under similar circumstances. 

21. James (^ogan, Oldcastle, County Meath, a Republican policeman, escorting 
a noted cattle stealer who had been arrested, shot dead by military on 
failing to obey order to halt. 

29. James Duggan, aged 10, Bruree, County Limerick, shot dead by fire from 
military" motor lorries directed against pedestrians as a reprisal for an at- 
tempted ambush of a military patrol four hours previously. 

29. Thomas Harris, Bruree, County Limerick, an epileptic and confirmed 

invalid, shot dead in his house by military after he had obeyed their 
order to put his hands up. 

30. James O' Sullivan, Da^ds Street, Limerick, mortally wounded in his house 

as a result of police throwing bombs into and wrecking an adjoining house 
at 2 a. m. 

31. James Mulcahy, Nicker, County Limerick, shot dead by military patrol 

who broke into his house. The coroner's jiuy returned a verdict that 
"James Mulcahy was willfully and foully murdered without provocation 
by military. " 
Auo-. 8. William Hartnett, Emly, County Limerick, shot dead without challenge 
or warning by police patrol. 
10. Thomas Farrelly, aged 20, Marys Lane, Dublin, shot dead without chal- 
lenge or warning by military at 12.30 a. m. while sitting with others 
around the embers of a bonfire lit in celebration of the arrival of the 
Most Re\'. Dr. Mannix. 

14. Patrick Lynch (48), Hospital, County Limerick, taken from his home by 

militarv and shot dead in the road. 

15. Edward Paget, Limerick city, attacked without provocation in the People's 

Park by police and savagely beaten. Collapsed on reaching home and 
died following day without regaining consciousness. 

16. John O'Connell, Derrygallon, Coujity Cork, shot dead by military and 

police from whom he endeavored to escape when they came to arrest 
him at his own house. 



22 THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 

1920. 

Aug. 17. Andred Hayes, Tipperary town, overtaken by police on his way home and 
shot dead without challenge or warning. 
17. Patrick Clancy, Derrygallon, County Cork, bayoneted while in custody 
of military, who, when he was mortally wounded, jumped on him, break- 
ing several of his ribs. 
20. Patrick Kennedy, Annascaul, County Kerry, shot dead by a military 
patrol, who without challenge or warning opened fire on four young men 
returning from a funeral. 

26. John Hynes (aged 70), Shanagolden, Coimty Limerick, shot dead on his 

way home by police who fired promiscuously along the streets. 

27. John Buckley, Middleton, County Cork, shot dead while being conveyed 

with his brother, to whom he was bound with ropes, in a covered lorry 
under an escort of 20 armed soldiers. His brother was dangerously 
wounded. 

28. George Walker, Queenstown, County Cork, a wounded and crippled ex- 

soldier unable to raise his hands rapidly enough when called upon by 
military, was promptly shot and after falling was bayoneted. 
Sept. 5. Patrick Hegarty, Ballyvourney, County Cork, shot dead when machine-gun 
fire was opened from an apparently deserted military motor lorry which 
was being viewed on the roadside by a crowd of young people. 
5. Michael Lynch, Ballyvourney, Coimty Cork, shot dead when cycling past 
an apparently deserted military motor lorry from which machine-gun fire 
was opened on a crowd of young people who were viewing it by the road- 
side. 

8. John Mulvey, Galway city, shot dead by a policeman who opened fire 

promiscuously and without warning at Galway railway station. 

9. James Quirke, Galway city, shot dead in the street by policemen who 

dragged him from his house at midnight. 

11. Patrick Gill, Drumsna, County Leitrim, fired upon by a military sentry 
while walking on the public road with his sister and a lady friend. Was 
bayoneted in the stomach after falling. No challenge to halt was heard. 

14. James Connolly (aged 70), Kinlough, County Leitrim, shot dead in his 
own house by military who came to arrest his son. Being deaf he did not 
hear an order to put up his hands. 

16. Joseph Athy, Oranmore, County Galway, when driving to his home with 
three companions was fired on without challenge or warning by police 
and mortally wounded. 

20. J. Ilealy (aged 18), Abbeyfeale, County Limerick, shot dead by a police- 
man whose salutation of "Good night" he did not answer. 

20. Patrick Harnett, Abbeyfeale, County Limerick, shot dead by a policeman 

whose salutation of "Good night" he did not answer. 

21. James Lawless (aged 48), Balbriggan, Cotmty Dublin, married man with 

eight children, dragged from his home at dead of night by police, savagely 
assaulted and shot dead, his body being afterwards shockingly mutilated 
with bayonet thrusts. 

21. John Gibbons, Balbriggan, County Dublin, brought from his home by 

police, beaten witli rifle butts for refusing to give information implicat- 
ing others, and shot dead, liis body being afterwards mutilated. 

22. John A. Lynch, county councillor, Kilmallock, County Limerick, shot 

dead in bed at 3 a. m. in the Royal Exchange Hotel, Dublin City, by 

English secret service officers. 
22. Thomas Connole, Ennistvmon, County Clare, dragged from his house and 

shot by police, his body being then thrown into the flames of liis house 

which was fired and destroyed. 
22. Patrick J. Linnane, Ennistymon, County Clare, taken from Iris home and 

murdered by the police on refusing to give them information. 
22. J. Salmon, Ennistymon, County Clare, shot dead in the street by police 

during the ■\vi-ecking by them of the towm of Ennistvmon. 
22. Patrick Lehane, Lahinch, County Clare, murdered by police during the 

burning of the town of Lahinch. The police had pre\iously shot and 

seriously wounded this boy's father for refusing to disclose the where- 
abouts of his son. 
26. John Gaynor, Springfield Road, Belfast, vshot dead in bed at 1.30 a. m., by 

police who broke into his house. 
26. John McFadden, 54, Springfield Road, Belfast, shot dead at 5.30 a. m. 

by police who broke into his house. 



THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 23 

1920. 
Sept. 26. Edward Trodden, Falls Road, Belfast, shot dead in his house by police who 

forced an entry at 2 a. m. 
Oct. 2. Hugh Conway, Cuilen, Count)^ Tipperary, when with others leaving a pub- 
lic house by order of the military, was fired upon and shot dead. 
2. John O'Hanlon, Lackagh, County Galway, shot dead in his own house by 

police who told his mother they "were out to kill him." 
6. John Clifford (aged 17), Derry City, when walking to his home with his 
mother, was fired upon without challenge or warning by a military sentry 
and shot dead. 
6. Patrick Thompson, Lisnadaragh, county Westmeath, held up on the road 
by a policeman, who shot him dead without cause or provocation. 
10. Michael Griffin (aged 60), Cork city, being deaf and not hearing a challenge 
to halt in the street at 2.40 p. m., was fired upon and mortally wounded 
by military. 
12. Prof. Carolan, Drumcondra, Dublin, mortally wounded by officers of the 
English Army intelligence staff for refusing to give the names of two men 
who had escaped from his house. 
14. Patrick Carroll (aged 15), Royal Canal Terrace, Dublin, shot dead by mili- 
tary and police who opened fire on pedestrians in Talbot Street, Dublin. 

14. Joseph Corringham, Lower Gardiner Street, Dublin, shot dead by military 

and police, who opened fire on pedestrians in Talbot Street, Dublin. 

15. John Connolly, Bandon, county Cork, found buried near the military bar- 

racks where he had been a prisoner in custody for 15 days. 

15. James Lehane, Ballymakeera, county Cork, taken from the shop where he 

worked by police, who shot him dead near his father's house. 

16. Peter O'Carroll (aged 58), Manor Place, Dublin, shot dead in his own house 

at 2 a. m. by auxiliary police on refusing to disclose the whereabouts of 
his sons. 

17. Henry O'Kelly, Parnell Square, Dublin, shot dead by military, who had 

taken him into custody. 

17. Michael O'Rourke, Green Street, Dublin, shot dead by military without 

cause or warning when looking on at a raid in Parnell Square. 

18. Edward O'Dwyer, Ballydavid, county Tipperary, brother of Francis 

O'Dwyer, dragged from his bed and shot dead beside his brother. 
18. Francis O'Dwyer, Ballydavid, County Tipperary, dragged from his bed by 

officers of the English Army intelligence staff and shot dead outside the 

door in the presence of his mother and sisters. 
18. Patrick Doyle, Balliiiagare, Castlerea, County Roscommon, taken from his 

house by police and shot dead outside the door. 
20. Michael S. Walsh, Republican member of Galway city urban council, 

dragged from his house by officers of the English Army intelligence staff, 

who shot him through the head and threw his dead body into the harbor. 
22. Michael Burke, urban councillor, Athlone, County Westmeath, fired upon 

in the street by constabulary without cause or challenge and mortally 

wounded. 
24. Thomas Egam Coshla, Athenry, County Galway, dragged from his house 

by police and shot dead in the presence of his wife. 

24. Charles Lynch (aged 70), Miltown-Malbay, County Clare, deliberately shot 

dead by military who forced an entry into his house. 

25. Michael Ryan, Curraghduff, County Tipperary, wliile ill in bed with 

pneumonia, shot dead in the presence of his sisters by officers of the 
English Army intelligence staff, who forced an entry into his room at 
12.30 a. m. 

25. William Gleeson, Finaghy, County Tipperary, taken from his house at 

3.30 a. m. by officers of the English Army intelligence staff and shot 
dead. 

26. Daniel Lehane, aged 65, Lahinch, County Clare, shot in the throat by 

police on September 22 for refusing to give information as to his son's 
whereabouts, died of his wounds. 

26. Hugh Moore, Derry City, shot dead in the public street by a military sentry 

without warning or challenge. 

27. James Sherlock, Skerries, County Dublin, dragged from his home 2.30 

a. m. by auxiliary police and shot dead in a field 400 yards from his 
mother 's house. 



24 THE STRUGGLE OF THE lEISH PEOPLE. 

1920. 
Oct. 27. Michael Scanlon, national teacher, Kilmallock, County Limerick, shot 

dead in a liouse in which he had taken refuge after escaping from the 

police. lie was manacled at the time. 
Nov. 1. Mrs. Ellen Quinn (aged 25), Gort, County Galway, a woman within two 

months of childbirth, was shot dead by police in a passing lorry while 

standing in front of her house, with a baby of nine months in her arms. 

There had been no attack on the police and no provocation whatever. 

There was no other person in the vicinity. 
3. John Conroy, Rathconnor, County Roscommon, taken from his cottage 

in the early morning and shot dead by auxiliary police with blackened 

faces, who held up his wife and nephews with revolvers and threatened 

to shoot Mrs. Conroy if she approached her dying husband. 
5. Thomas O'Brien, Nenagh, County Tipperary, taken from a friend's house 

at midnight by auxiliary police and placed in a military motor lorry and 

murdered by the police. 
5. John O'Brien, Nenagh, County Tipperary, murdered by auxiliary police 

beside Thomas O'Brien in a military motor lorry, 
fi. William Mulcahy, Cork city, shot dead on his way home about 10 o'clock 

at night by a military patrol who opened fire on him without challenge 

or warning. 
8. Miss O'Connell (aged 15), Ardfert, County Kerry, shot dead while standing 

at her own door by soldiers who opened indiscriminate fire in the streets. 
8. Michael McGuire, Ardfert, County Kerry, arrested in his own home by mili- 
tary, piit into a motor lorry handcuffed, and shot dead outside the village. 
8. Michael Brosnan, Labourer, Ardfert, County Kerry, who threw doAvn his 

tools and ran for cover on approach of military lorries, deliberately fired 

upon and shot dead. 
8. John Cantillon, Ardfert, County Kerry, shot dead without challenge or 

warning by soldiers traveling in a lorry, as he was returning from a doctor 

who had treated him for wounds received during indiscriminate firing by 

military in the village. 
10. Christopher Lucy, Cork city, traced to a house in Ballingeary, County 

Cork, by police who forced an entry and shot him dead. 
10. Frank Hoffman, a young Protestant farmer. Farmers Bridge, Tralee, County 

Kerry, placed against a fence and shot dead by police who suspected him 

of being an Irish volunteer officer. 
12. John Herlihy,! Ballymacelligot, County Kerry, assistant creamery manager. 
12. P. MacMahon,! Ballymacelligot, County Kerry. 

12. Thomas Walsh ^ (aged 18), Ballymacelligot, County Kerry. 

13. Annie O'Neill (aged 6), Charlemont Avenue, Dublin, shot dead in the 

street by military who opened fire promiscuously on some boys and 
young men who ran away in fear when the soldiers jumped from their 
lorries. 

14. Patrick Lynch, Golden, County Tipperary, shot dead by military without 

challenge or warning while walking along the road with his wife. 
17. Michael McMahon,^ Scariff, County Clare. 
17. John Egan,^ Scariff, County Clare. 
17. John Connolly. 2 Whitegate, County Clare. 
17. Michael Connolly,- Whitegate, County Clare. 
17. Patrick Hanley (aged 17), Broad Lane, Cork city, shot dead by a party of 

policemen who entered his house during the night. 

17. Eugene O'Connell, Broad Street, Cork city, dragged out of bed and shot 

dead in the presence of his wife by masked police who smashed their way 
into his house at midnight. 

18. James Coleman, North Mall, Cork city, called to his door in the early 

hours of the morning and shot dead in the presence of his wife by police 
who after their victim had fallen wounded fired more shots into him ' ' to 
finieh him." 

19. Thomas Clancy, Killusty, County Tipperary, deliberately shot by military 

who refused to allow his brother to go for a priest and threatened to murder 
him also. 



1 Killed by military who opened fire on a group of people, who ran in terror when the soldiers in military 
lorries dashed up to BallymacelUsot creamery where these people were doing business. 

2 Taken prisoner by poUce and butchered 10 hours later on the Bridge of Killaloe, County Clare. 



THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 25 

1920. 
Nov. 20. Rev. Michael Griffin, B. A., Galway city, a Catholic priest called from his 
home on the 14th of November by disguised police who pretended his 
services were required for a dying man. His dead body was found buried 
in a bog at Cloughskella, near Galway, vdth a bullet wound in his head. 
20. James O'Neill,'' Limerick city. 
20. Michael Blake, ^ limerick city. 

20. Austin Cowley, journalist (aged 63), Navan, County Meath, shot dead by 

a military sentry whose challenge he failed to hear. 

21. Miss Jane Boyle,* "Lennox Street, Dublin. 

21. Jeremiah O'Leary * (aged 10), Blessington Street, Dublin. 

21. William Robinson * (aged 11), Parnell Street, Dublin. 

21. J. Scott * (aged 14), Fitzroy Avenne, Dublin. 

21. O'Dowd,* Buckingham Street, Dublin. 

21. James Burke,'* Dundrum, County Dublin. 

21. Patrick Travnor,* Clendalkin, County Dublin. 

21. Thomas Ryan,* Viking Street, Dublin. 

21. James Teehan,* Green Street, Dublin. 

21. Michael Hogan,* Grangemockler, County Tipperary. 

21. James Matthews,'' Northcumberland Road, Dublin. 

21. Michael Feeney,* Gardiner's Place, Dublin. 

21. Thomas Hogan,* St. James's Terrace, Dublin. 

21. Daniel Carroll,* James 't Street, Dublin. 

21. William Cullinane,^ aged 20, divinity student, Claregalway, County Gal- 
way. 

21. James Conlon,^ Dame Street, Dublin. 

21. H. West Barnett, North Circular Road, Dublin, deliberately shot dead at 
Mountjoy Square, Dublin, by police who were under the influence of 
drink, and who rifled the body. 

21. Thomas Lyons, Cappagh, County Mayo, shot dead by soldiers in a passing 
liirry as he was going on a message for his father. 

21. John McSwiggan, Magherafelt, County Derry, shot dead in the street by 

military before he had time to put up his hands in response to a challenge. 

22. Richard McKee," Finglas, County Dublin. 
22. Peter Clancy," Gloucester Street," Dublin. 
22. T. Conor Clune," County Clare. 

22. John McCann, Rush, County Dublin, brought from his house by police and 
riddled with bullets in a field 30 yards away. 

22. Michael O'Reilly, aged 14, Capel Street, Dublin, shot dead by military who 

fired ^vithout warning on a grouj) of children gathered round a lorry where 
soldiers were raiding houses. 

23. Patrick O'Donoghue,^ Cork City. 
23. Edward Meehigan,'' Cork City. " 
23. Patrick Trahey,^ Cork City. 

23. Denis O'Connell, Kildorrery, County Cork, taken from his bed and in the 

presence of his family shot dead by police. 

24. Michael Moran, Carromeen, Coimty Galway, officer of the Irish Republican 

Army, shot dead near Earls Island Military Barracks, Galway, by an 
escort of police in whose hands he was an unarmed and laelpless prisoner. 

25. Thomas Dojde (aged 22), Dolphins Barn, Dublin, shot dead in his own yard 

by auxiliary police who raided his house and arrested his brother-in-law. 

25. Denis Carey, Nenagh, County Tipperary, mortally wounded by masked 

police who took him from his home during the night. 

26. Mortimer Duggan, national school teacher, Broadford, County Limerick, 

shot dead by police who rushed into a house where he was playing cards. 

3 Returning from Dublin to Limerick after James ONeiU and Michael Blake's brother had been acquitted 
by a court-martial of the charge of murdering a policeman, were held up near Limerick Junction by dis- 
guised poUce and shot dead. Michael lil i :e (an ex-soldier; was murdered in mistake for his brother, 
Patrick, the acquitted man. 

< Shot dead when large forces of military opened deliberate and unprovoked fire, which was kept up for 
10-minutes, on a crowd of several thousand spectators at a football match at Croke Park, Dublin. Michael 
Hogan. a member of the Tipperary team, was shot at the goal post. 

5 Ordered to run by miUtary after being "held up" and searched when leaving divine service in St. 
Andrew's Cathedral, Dublin; flred upon by the military and mortally wounded. 

8 Shot and bayoneted to death wliile confined as prisoners in a guardroom in Dublin Castle; abrasions and 
wounds on bodies of McKee and Clancy showed they had been tortured before being kiUed. 

' Killed while standing on the street by a bomb thrown from a passing police lorry. 



26 THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 

1920. 
Nov. 29. Martin Walsh (aged 62), an inmate of Clare Lunatic Asylum, not under- 
standing a challenge to halt, wag shot dead by a military raiding party. 
30. Sean O'CarroU, Irish teacher, Ardee, County Louth, taken from his house 
and shot in the back by auxiliary police. He died in great agony two 
hours later. 
30. Patrick Tierney, Ardee, County Louth, dragged from his home by auxiliary 
police who threw him on a rubbish heap and riddled his head with 
bullets. 
Dec. 1. Carl Jolinson, Norwegian sailor, mortally wounded by auxiliary police who 
opened indiscriminstte fire on the quays in Cork city. 

1. Patrick Clancy, Newtowndrangan, County Tipperary, an officer of the 

Irish Republican Army, dragged fa-om a friend's house and murdered 
on the roadway by a military party. 

2. J. Begley,* Bandon, County Cork. 

2. James Donoghue,* Bandon, County Cork. 
2. James Galvin,* Bandon, County Cork. 

4. Joseph Howley, Oranmore, County Galway, member of the Irish republican 

army, shot dead by police who were lying in wait for him on arrival at 
Broadstone railway station, Dublin. When Howley was shot and bleed- 
ing to death the police by prearrangement signaled to a waiting motor 
car and drove straight to Dublin Castle. 

5. Thomas Hand, Skerries, County Dublin, taken from his bed in the dead of 

night by auxiliary police and shot dead in the presence of his crippled 
brother and two sisters. Four shot (Were fired into his head and neck. 
5. Thomas Rooney (ex-soldier\ Ballyshannon, County Donegal, shot dead by 
police who opened fire without warning on a crowd of people in the public 
street. 

5. Thomas Curtin, Kilrush, County Clare, shot dead by police and military who 

surrounded the house in which a republican court was sitting and opened 
fire on those who came from the courthouse on the arrival of the lorries. 

6. Thomas Louglinane,^ Gort, Coimty Galway. 

6. Henry Loughnane,^ Gort, Coimty Galway. 

7. John 'Fleming, Cattle Market Avenue, Cork city, died in great agony as 

a result of wounds received when, with two brothers and a friend, fire 
was suddenly opened on them from a passing police lorry as they Avere 
walking along the street at 4.30 p. m. 

7. Denis Regan, aged 21, Clashflack, County Cork, arrested by military at 

Bandon, County Cork, and taken under heavy escort in a military motor 
lorry in the direction of Clonakilty, County Cork. His dead body was 
found on the road later with a bullet wound in the back of the head. _ 

8. Michael J. Murphy, Tower Street, Cork city, shot dead by auxiliary police, 

who opened fire on worshippers leaving SS. Peter and Paul's Chiu'ch. 

10. Wm. Owens, aged 24, Shankill, County Wicklow; military raided a club 

where Owens was playing cards. He, with a number of other young men, 
was standing with his hands up when he was shot through the brain. 

11. Jeremiah Delaney, Dublin Hill, Cork city, aged 24, a member of the Irish 

Republican Array, shot through the heart in the presence of his family by 
auxiliary police who forcibly entered his house at 2.30 a. m. 
11. James Lawlor, of Inchicore, County Dublin, an engine driver, while going 
to his work at Lismore, County Waterford, was shot dead without chal- 
lenge or warning by a military sentry. 

14. Thomas O'Loughlin, member of the Irish Republican Army, Mullaunbrack, 

County Tipperary, mortally wounded by auxiliary police as he escaped 
from a house into which the police had forced an entrance. One of them 
seized O'Loughlin with the words, "You are the man we want. Come 
outside." 

15. Very Rev. Canon Magner (aged 73), parish priest of Dunmanway, County 

Cork, forced to his knees on the public road, questioned for a quarter of 
an hour, and then shot dead by an auxiliary police officer. Auxiliary 
police in two lorries were spectators of the murder but did not interfere. 
When Canon Magner was killed they threw his body over the bank of a 
field and drove away. 

8 Shot dead by military patrol whUe walking along the road. Left aU night on the road; found following 
morning by civilians. 

3 Arrested Nov. 25 by military and police. Their mother informed some days afterwards that her sons 
were "safe in prison." On Dec. 6 the dead bodies were found in a pond at Gort, in a shocking state of 
mutilation, the flesh being loose and the skulls battered in. Before the bodies had been tiidden in the 
pond an effort had been made to burn them. 



THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 27 

1920. 
Dec. 15. Timothy Crowley, Dunmanway, County Cork, on the same occasion ques- 
tioned on the ]>uV>lic road for 10 minutes, beaten in the face -ndth the l)utt 
end of revolver, and then shot dead by an auxiliary police officer. Other 
police who were witnesses of the murder did not interfere, but helped 
to throw the dead body over the bank of a field. 
15. John McGowan, Frenchpark, County Roscommon, taken from his lied at 
night and shot dead by auxiliary police in the presence of his family. 

17. Michael Edmunds, Tipperary Town, taken from his bed by auxiliary police, 

who forced their way into his house after midnight and shot him through 
the lirain on the hills near by. 

18. Cornelius Delaney, Dublin Hill, Cork City, aged 21, member of Irish 

Republican Army, mortally wounded by being shot in the stomach and 
shoulder by auxiliary police who forcibly entered his house at 2.30 a. m. 
on December 11. 
18. James Looby,^° Dualla, County Tipperary. 

18. Wm. Delaney,'" Rosegreen, County Tipperary. 

19. James O'Connor. Killeentierna. Killarney, County Kerry, seized on the road 

and taken into a passing police lorry. After traveling some distance he 
was pitched out and shots fired into his body. Seriously wounded, he 
was removed to a neighboring farmer's house where later he was shot 
dead by the police.. 

19. Laurence Looby, aged 19, a brother of James Looby (see Dec. 18), taken 
from a friend's house, which was raided by police, and shot dead outside. 

19. Michael Walton," Clonhalty, County Tipperary. 

19. Patrick Connors," Clonhalty. County Tipperary. 

19. Laurence McDonagh. Aran Islands, shot dead by a party of police who 

landed on the islands and fired indiscriminately on the islanders, kill- 
ing two men and wounding many. There had been no crime or dis- 
order of any kind on the Aran Islands within memory. 

20. John Phelan, Ballyroan, County Queens, shot dead by auxiliary pohce- 

men after he had wounded and disarmed one of the party who entered 
his father-in-law's house at 4 a. m., and demanded money. 

21. J. Hynan, Emly, County Limerick, arrested by police and shot dead a 

few hours afterwards while in custody. 
, 22. Michael McNamara, Doonbeg, County Clare, shot dead at Kilrush, County 
Clare, while a prisoner in police custody. 

22. W J. Shanahan, West Clare, shot dead while a prisoner in Ennis Jail, 

County Clare. 

23. Mrs. M. Ryan, Bridge Street, Callan, Coimty Kilkenny, mortally wounded 

by being shot at by police. Residents of Callan were ordered by police 
to remain indoors and keep their houses closed while the funeral of a police- 
man (who was killed in mistake by an English patrol) was passing 
through the town, \^'hen the funeral had passed her door Mrs. Ryan 
opened it to let out a customer. She was fired on and mortally wounded. 
Mrs. Ryan was within two weeks of her confinement. 

23. Andrew i\Ioynihan, Rathmore, County Kerry, shot dead on the roadside 
by English forces without provocation or warning. 

25. John Leen,'- Ballymacelligot. County Kerry. 

25. Maurice Reidy,'- I3allymacelligot, County Kerry. 

26. James Hickey. Knocknagoshel, County Kerry, assistant in a drapery 

establishment in Tipperary Town, shot dead while in custody in Tip- 
perary military barracks. 

26. Edward Moloney,'^ Bruff, County Limerick. 

26. Martin Conway, '^ Bruff, County Limerick. 

10 Arrested by military and after 4 days in custody taken as hostage with a motor patrol of military who 
were searching the countryside. After the return of the patrol Looby and Delaney were shot dead "in the 
lorries. 

11 Shot dead by military and pohce who questioned them on the road. 

12 Shot dead in the house of Mrs. Byrne, Ballydwyer, County Kerry, by Auxiliary pohce who burst Ln 
the door and afterwards set the house on fire. 

13 Moloney, Sheehan, Ward, and Quinlan shot dead by police who at midnight raided a dance at Caher- 
guillane House, Brufl, County Limerick. Conwny was wounded but crawled four miles from the house 
and hid himself in a bog. The police, accompanied by a bloodhound, tracked liim down. Conwav shot 
the bloodhound and was then murdered by the police. 



28 THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 

1920. 
Dec. 26. Daniel Sheehan,''' Bruff, County Limerick. 
26. Henry Ward.' ^ Bruff, County Limerick. 
26. .TohnQuinlan,'^ Bruff, County Limerick (American citizen). 
26. Patrick O'Brien, Aherlow, County Tipperary, shot dead by military on the 

roadside as he was assisting a Mend named Denis O'Brien who had been 

fired on and wounded by a military sentry without challenge or warning. 
28. Michael Smith, Beleek, County Armagh, shot dead in his home by special 

constabulary who raided his house. 
28. Timothy B. Madigan, Shanagolden, County Limerick, a member of the 

Irish "Republican Army, shot dead by a party of police who met him on 

the road. 

28. Joseph O'Doherty, aged 16, Garvagh, County Derry, shot dead by police 

who opened fire on a party of dancers in a school. In a subsequent search 
of the place, no arms, ammunition, or seditious literature were found. 
O'Doherty did not belong to any political organization and was not a 
member of the Irish Republican Army. 

29. William Slattery, Emly, County Limerick, shot dead at Rosborough, by a 

police guard who were conveying him handcuffed from his uncle's house 
at Emly, where he had been" arrested, to Tipperary military barracks. 
29. Richard Leonard, Ballybrook, County Limerick, taken from his sister's 
house in the early morning and shot dead by police. 
1921. 
Jan. 1. David Tobin,'^ Ballingarry, County Limerick. 

1. Thomas Murphy,'* Ballingarry, County Limerick. 

1. John Lawler, clerical student^ Listowel, County Kerry, beaten to death by 

police who without provocation set upon him in the street. 
1. Michael MacAuliffe, Dysart, Lixnaw, County Kerry, shot dead by police 

who opened fire without warning on a party of mourners at a funeral. 
3. Jehr. Casey, Derryfinane, County Cork, with some other boys who were 

on the road, ran on the approach of military lorries and was shot dead. 
3. P. Kennedy, Moneygall, King's County, fatally wounded by police, who 

opened fire on mourners at a funeral. 
5. Finbarr Darcy, Riverstown, County Cork, arrested by military in the 
Imperial Hotel, Cork, at 1 a. m., and afterwards shot dead while a prisoner 
in the hands of the military. 
5. John MacSwiney, aged 15, AUensbridge, County Cork, ran away on the 
approach of a military lorry who fired upon and mortally wounded him 
in the stomach. 

5. N. D. Prendergast, MacCurtain Street, Fermoy, County Cork, dead body 

found on Caryville Island, river Blackwater. Had not been seen alive 
since December 2, 1920, when arrested by auxiliary police in a house in 
Fermoy. 

6. Patrick Durr, Tubberkeigh, County Roscommon, taken from his home at 

midnight by auxiliary police and shot dead. 
9. Felix Mallin, aged 17, Ballinaliss, County Armagh, fired at without warn- 
ing by police and mortally wounded. 

10. James Farrell, ex-soldier, of the English Army, Pender Street, Dublin, 

shot dead by auxiliary police, who fired indiscriminately in the streets. 

11. John Doran, Camlough, County Armagh, a prominent Sinn Feiner, taken 

from his home by auxiliary police and shot dead. 
13. Miss Martha Nowlan, Connaught Street, Dublin, shot dead by military, 

who opened fire without warning in Westmoreland Street, Dublin. 
15. Gerald Pring, Cork City, shot dead during indiscriminate firing by police in 

the streets. 
17. Patrick Sloane.'^ 

17. Joseph Tormey.'^ 

18. Thomas Collins, Kilkeel, County Gal way, taken from his home at midnight 

and shot dead by auxiliary police. 

13 Moloney, Sheehan, AVard, and Quintan shot dead by police who at midnight raided a dance at Caher- 
guiUane House, Bruff, County Limerick. Conway was wounded but crawled four miles from the house 
and hid himself in a bog. The poUce, accompanied by a bloodhound, tracked him down. Conway shot 
the bloodhound and was then murdered by the poUce. 

n On running from a house in BaUylanders, County Limerick, on the approach of a military lorry, were 
fired upon, .Murphy being shot dead and Tobin mortally wounded. 

15 Two members of the Irish RepubUcau army, prisoners in Ballykinlar Camp. Shot dead by a sentry 
who fired at them as they were conversing with comrades in an adjoining portion of the camp as they had 
obtained permission to do. 



I 



THE STKUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 29 

1921. 

Jan. 19. Thomas I>awler, Lyster Lane, Maryborough, County Queens, shot dead in 
his own home in the pre.-ence of his family by a policeman. 

22. Michael Hoade.^® Caherlistrane, County Galway. 

22. James Kirwin,'^ Ballinastack, ( 'ounty Galway. 

22. William Wahh,'*^ Headford, County Galway. 

23. Richard Ff)ley, aged 15, Cork, shot dead by military while playing in the 

street with another l)oy of 15, who was also wounded. The troops opened 
fire without warning. 

26. James Devaney, chemist, Kilruhane, County Tipperary, shot dead without 

warnine: by police as he was leaving a friend's house with two comrades. 

27. Michael GaiVey. Belfast, shot dead by police who entered his lodgings 

during the night. 

27. Francis O'Meara. Laffanbridge, County Tipperary, shot wliile in the 

custody of police who had previously battered in his head with rifle butts. 

28. William Egerton, Marmion, Lismore, County Waterford, shot dead while 

walking to his home by constabulary who opened fire on him without 

warning. 
28. Thomas R. Blake, Limerick city, held up by English forces and shot out 

of hand. 
31. Denis Bennett, '^ aged 17, j\IalIow, railway man. 
31. D. O'MuUane.i' Mallow, railway man. 
31. Patrick Devitt,^" MalloM', railway man. 
Feb. 2. Robert Dixon, aged 56, Milltown, Coiinty Wicklow, an English justice of 

the peace, shot dead in his house by police who came to loot his house. 

3. Michael Farelly. aged 70, Ballinalee. County Longford, shot dead in his 

home by auxiliary police. His home and farm produce were then burned 
to the ground. 

4. Patrick Crowley, Kilbrittain, County Cork, shot dead by police for refusing 

to assist in the destruction of his father's shop. 

4. John Galvin. hotel proprietor, Listowel, County Kerry, an elderly man, 

dropped dead after being compelled by police to repair roads. 

5. Daniel Moloney, aged 65, Lislevane. County Cork, shot dead by English 

forces as he was passing tlirough a district where raids and arrests were 
being carried out. 

6. Patrick O'Sullivan, aged 17, Broad Lane, Cork, shot dead by police who 

opened fire on pedestrians in the streets. 

7. Robert Browne, Ballymacelligot, County Kerry, shot dead when endeav- 

oring to escape from English forces who had burned his house some time 
previous. 

7. William F'itzgerald, aged 4, upper liffey Street, Dublin, shot dead by 
military who fired indiscriminately in a Dublin street. 

7. Michael J. Kelleher, aged 14, Knocknagree, County Cork, who while play- 
ing with other boys of his own age, ran away on the approach of military 
lorries and was shot dead. Two other boys , aged 8 and 11 years, were 
wounded. 

9. Aid. Thomas Halpin,^^ Drogheda, County Louth. 

9. John Moran,^* Drogheda, County Louth. 

9. Patrick Kennedy, '^ aged 18, Corporation Buildings, Dublin. 

9. James Murphy,'^ Killarney Street, Dublin. 
11. Daniel Mahony, aged 17, Clondrohid, County Cork, shot dead for failing 

to halt when called upon by police. 
14. James Coffey,^" aged 19, Bandon, County Cork. ' 

14. Timothy Coffey,^" aged 22, Bandon, County Cork. 

15. Denis Quinlan, aged 50, Hollyford, County Tipperary, shot dead by police, 

who fired upon worshippers lea\'ing a church. 
20. John Geoghegan, Rural Councillor. Ogolle, Moycullen, County Galway, 

taken from his bed and shot dead b}'- auxiliary police. 
20. Cecil Donovan, 21 aged 18, Blackwater, County Limerick. 

16 Taken from their homes and shot dead by police. 

17 Shot dead by English forces while engaged at their work at Mallow railway station. 

18 Taken from their homes at midnight by auxiUary poUce and shot dead. 

1' Arrested by EngUsh forces and brought to Dublin Castle, subsequently handed over to a police escort 
to be left at their homes. Instead of bringing them to their homes the escort brought them to an empty 
loot in Drumcondra and murdered them. 

20 Taken from their father's home at 2 a. m. and shot dead by nolice. 

21 Failing to obey an order to halt by English forces were firod upon and shot dead. 



30 THE STRUGGLE OF THE IRISH PEOPLE. 

1921. 
Feb. 20. Aidan Donovan. ^^ aged 14, Blackwater, County Limerick. 

20. Robert McElligott, Listowel, County Kerry, failed to respond to a call to 

halt and was shot dead by English forces near Tralee, County Kerry. 
22. Mary Harley, aged 26, Mountcharles, Coimty Donegal, found shot dead in 

her uncle's yard after English forces had burned and wrecked many 

houses in the town. 
27. James Taylor, Glencor, Killorglin. County Kerry, shot dead by English 

forces on making a dash for liberty after being arrested. 
27. .Joseph Stapleton, Borrisoleigh, County Tipperary, died from wounds 

received without provocation during a raid on his house by English forces. 
27. William Kelly, Kickham Street, Thurles, County Tipperary. with a num- 
ber of other youths ran on the approach of English forces and Avas shot 

dead. 
27. John Conlon, Lissycasey, County Clare, shot dead by English forces as he 

was leaving church after mass. 

27. P. Cronin, aged 18, Dingle district. County Kerry, deliberately shot dead 

by military, who fired at him as he was assisting a friend to launch a boat. 

28. Michael Heeney, Malinbeg, Glen Columbkille, County Donegal, shot dead 

near his own house by military, who came to raid his house. 

OFFICIAL MILITARY MURDERS. 

During tliis period also the British Government, whose authority has been re- 
pudiated by the people of Ireland, and which maintains its forc-es as an alien invading 
army on "active service" on Irish soil, condemned to death and executed, in defiance 
of the rules of civilized warfare, the following Irishmen for the ''crime" of levying 
war against the British forces Avhich seek to destroy the national independence of their 
country or for that of being in possession of firearms with which they might defend 
the right of their coimtry to that national independence: 

1920. 
Nov. 1. Kevin Barry, aged 18, medical student, Dublin. Hanged in Mountjoy 
jail. He was one of seven members of the Irish republican army armed 
with revolvers, who attacked eight English soldiers warmed with rifles; 
one of these soldiers was killed in the encounter and Kevin Barry was 
hanged for "murder." 
1921. 
Feb. 1. Cornelius Murphy, Rathmore, County Kerry, shot in Cork jail for being in 
possession of firearms. 
28. John Allen, Bank Place, Tipperary, shot in Cork jail for being in possession- 

of firearms. 
28. Daniel O'Callaghan,^^ Dripsey, County Cork. 
28. Thomas O'Brien, ^^ Dripsey, County Cork. 
28. John Lyons, Aghabullogue, County Cork. 
28. Timothy McCarthv,22 Fornaught, County Cork. 
28. Patrick O'Mahony,^^ Berrings, County Cork. 



Appendix E. 

copy of leiter from president de valera to each member of the coalition in 
the english house of common's, on february 12,1921. 

To- , M. p., 

House of Commons, London: 

Lest on a plea of ignorance you should disclaim responsibility for what is being 
done here in your name, speaking for the elected representatives of the people of 
Ireland. I now bring directly to your notice the following facts: 

The troops in Ireland employecl by your Government are not only waging an unjust 
war upon our people, but are carrying on that war in a manner contrary to all rules of 
ciA-ilized warfare. In defiance of these rules your forces are guilty of: 

1. The torturing of prisoners. 

2. The assassination of men and boys in their homes, on the streets, and in prison^ 

21 Failing to obey an order to halt by English forces were fired upon and shot dead. 

22 Shot in Cork jail for levying war against the British forces. 



THE STRUGGLE OF THE lEISH PEOPLE. 31 

3. The murdering of women, of cliildreu, and of clergymen. 

4. The outraging of women and girls. 

5. The flogging and maltreatment of groiips of civilians taken in the villages and 
countryside.s. 

6. The issuing and enforcing of " crawUng " and siich like humiliating and degrading 
orders. 

7. The taking of men from their work and forcing them to do military duty, or work 
at military labor as slave gangs. 

8. The burning and looting of factories, creameries, shops, and dwelling houses, thtj 
destruction of farmsteads and farm produce, and the killing and maiming of live stock. 

In order to help you realize the situation, it is necessary to restate this fact; 

The Irish people are a free people. They acknowledge no right to dominion over 
them on tlie part of the British executive, the British legislature, or the British people. 
They are engaged in a lawful effort to defend a sacred right which you are invading. 
Abandoning justice and reason, the only ground on which it is possible for civilized 
peoples to come to an understanding, you are seeking to crush that lawful effort by a 
blind barbaric violence. 

Although you have put your troops on "active service" in Ireland, although you 
have sought to justify many of the \Tle deeds committed as "acts of war," and although 
you are armed with the most deadly modern machinery of war and i)rotected by every 
means known to technical skill, you now seek to purchase immunity from defensive 
action on our part by making the possession of firearms an offense for which Irishmen 
may, if arrested, be shot, and for which one has been shot;^^ and by carrying Irish 
citizens as "hostages" in your military expeditions against our people. The orders 
to your troops are to shoot these hostages should the unit with which they are traveling 
be attacked. Already, under the specious pretense that they were trying to escape, 
many Irish prisoners have been brutally murdered by your troops. Now, representa- 
tive Irish citizens are to be murdered similarly on the ground, pretended or true, that 
the party with which they are moving is attacked . 

These things are done because it is your will they should be done. If you willed 
otherwise, they would cease. 

It is you and not your troops who are primarily responsible. 

Eamon de Valera. 

February 12, 1921. 

" Several other Irishmen have been shot for the possession of firearms since this letter was written. 

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